Acupuncture has been utilized for over 5000 years. Many Americans think that acupuncture originated in China. Interestingly, Egypt, Persia, India and Japan were known to have used acupuncture first, even before China. However, China is credited for extensive development and research on acupuncture due to the early writings and documents written during the dynasties. Acupuncture can be traced back as far as the Stone Age in China and is a major component of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Modern acupuncture needles are made of a solid, sterile stainless steel. East China was the first to develop needle-like tools made of stone, called "bian" stones. Bones, rocks, and bamboo were other materials were also used to make the needles. Metal needles were finally invented after the invention of bronze casting. Northern China was responsible for developing Moxibustion. Moxibustion is the burning of an herb, Artemis Vulgaris, on or near the skin to nourish the Qi (pronounced "chee") and warm the body during the cold season. In modern times, we can use infrared heat lamps to mimic the warming effects of the herb. China was the first to document the use of acupuncture points, and thus all systems of acupuncture began with the original Chinese medical text, The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine by Huang Di Nei Jing, compiled during 475-221 B.C. In the next centuries, Acupuncture developed quickly by the many Chinese dynasties who improved the system of acupuncture. Another monumental text, "A Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion" was written in 400 AD. This book described the names and number of points for each channel or Meridian, their exact locations, indications, and methods of manipulation. These ancient texts are the basis for modern acupuncture which has been practiced in the United States for the last 150 years.
Acupuncture became more popular and accepted in the United States in 1971, after President Nixon made a trip to China. During this trip to China, James Reston, a journalist traveling with President Nixon, had an emergency appendectomy in China. On the plane ride back to the United States, President Nixon was surprised to learn that acupuncture was used for Mr. Reston's post-operative pain relief. When Mr. Reston returned to New York, he wrote an article in the New York Times regarding his experience in China with Acupuncture. Mr. Reston was amazed by how a patient could be totally awake and that sticking needles into the body could actually block the pain from surgery. Since that time, acupuncture has grown in popularity in the United States.
The report from a Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture held at the National Institute of Health (NIH), in 1997, stated that acupuncture is being "widely" practiced by thousands of physicians, dentists, acupuncturist, chiropractors, and other practitioners, for relief or prevention of pain and for various other health conditions. According to the 2002 National Health Interview Survey-the largest and most comprehensive survey of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used by American adults today- an estimated 8.2 million U.S. adults have used acupuncture, and an estimated 2.1 million U.S. adults have used acupuncture in the previous years. It is estimated that now 15 million people each year try acupuncture for the first time and more would try this ancient healing method if they only knew more about how it worked. Hopefully, as you continue to read these blogs, you will have a better understanding of acupuncture, and perhaps try this method for yourself.
Medical patients can often struggle with feeling insecure about asserting their feelings or needs to health care providers. However, when you assert yourself you feel more in control and ultimately your stress is reduced.
Keep in mind that assertiveness is not aggressiveness. Assertiveness is a balance between the extremes of aggressiveness and submissiveness. People who act in an aggressive style demand and expect others to do exactly what they want. Those who act in a submissive style give up their own beliefs, opinions, and wants to the demands of others. They feel guilty to ask for what they want as if others' needs are more important than their own. As assertive person respects others' views and feelings but also values and respects their own.
Look others directly in the eyes when talking to them and maintain an open posture. This will be easier to do if you reinforce for yourself that what you are saying is important. Don't assume a posture that says you are absolutely right---such as glaring at others when speaking, and ending your statements as if there is no questioning or doubting your words.
Be specific when making requests. Vague requests or comments can often be misinterpreted by others or simply ignored. If your request is very specific and direct, there is little room for confusion. For example, instead of asking for someone's help in general, specifically state what you want help with, when, and for how long.
Asserting your opinions, needs, concerns and questions with your healthcare providers will help you with making important decisions and assist you in your coping. Those who feel they have a voice and it matters will feel more in control and engage in a more healthy decision making.
Is it hard for you to fall asleep or stay asleep though the night? Do you wake up feeling tired or feel very sleepy during the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are:
- Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep
- Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep
- Restless legs syndrome - a tingling or prickly sensation in the legs
- Narcolepsy - daytime "sleep attacks"
Nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, head banging, wetting the bed and grinding your teeth are kinds of sleep problems called parasomnias. There are treatments for most sleep disorders. Sometimes just having regular sleep habits can help.
Did you know that Lake Health has two sleep centers? The nationally accredited sleep medicine program at Lake Health has over 15 years of experience diagnosing and treating a broad spectrum of sleep disorders. Both sleep centers feature four private rooms in a quiet and comfortable atmosphere where patients are monitored overnight for suspected sleep disorders, such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, snoring, sleep walking and restless legs syndrome. Accredited by the American Association of Sleep Medicine, the centers offer the most advanced monitoring and diagnostic technology as well as an expert staff of physicians board certified in sleep medicine, professional registered polysomnography technicians, registered respiratory therapists, pulmonologists, otolaryngologists (ENT) and psychologists. The Sleep Centers are conveniently located at:
Willoughby Willoughby Hills
West Medical Center Chagrin North Office Park
36000 Euclid Avenue 34900 Chardon Road
Willoughby, OH 44094 Building 1, Suite 105
(440) 602-6306 Willoughby Hills, OH 44094
- Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)
- Sleep and Sleep Disorders (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Sleep Disorders (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)
- Sleep Disorders (Food and Drug Administration)
- Your Guide to Healthy Sleep (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) - PDF
- Military Deployment May Lead to Unhealthy Sleep Patterns (12/01/2010, HealthDay)
- Common Sleep Complaints May Be Tied to Heart Threat (12/01/2010, HealthDay)
- Body's 'Clock' Gene May Play Role in Depression (11/18/2010, HealthDay)
- Sleep and Your Smarts (11/15/2010, HealthDay)
- Sleep Problems? (09/13/2010, HealthDay)
- More News on Sleep Disorders
- Polysomnography (Sleep Study) (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Sleep Studies (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)
- Common Treatments of Sleep Disorders (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)
- Insomnia Treatment: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Instead of Sleeping Pills (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Prescription Sleeping Pills: What's Right for You? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Sedatives (Consumers Union of U.S.)
- Melatonin (American Academy of Family Physicians)
- Valerian (National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements)
- Preventing Parasomnias (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)
- Sleep Hygiene: The Healthy Habits of Good Sleep (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)
Health Check Tools
- Interactive Sleep Quiz (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)
- Sleepiness Scale (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)
- Alcohol and Sleep (Harvard Medical School)
- Caffeine and Sleep (Harvard Medical School)
- Considering Medication vs. Behavioral Approaches for Treatment of Sleep Problems (Harvard Medical School)
- Discussing Sleep with Your Doctor (Harvard Medical School)
- Drowsy Driving(Harvard Medical School)
- Jet Lag and How to Mitigate Its Effects (Harvard Medical School)
- Over-the-Counter Sleep Medications (Harvard Medical School)
- Shift Work and Ways to Improve Sleep (Harvard Medical School)
- Sleep Deprivation and Cardiovascular Risk (Harvard Medical School)
- Sleep Problems in Older Adults (Harvard Medical School)
- Sleep Strategies Later in Life (Harvard Medical School)
- Sleep, Learning, and Memory (Harvard Medical School)
- Smoking and Sleep (Harvard Medical School)
- To Nap or Not? (Harvard Medical School)
- What to Expect from a Sleep Evaluation (Harvard Medical School)
- Sleep For Kids: Games and Puzzles (National Sleep Foundation)
- All about Sleep (Nemours Foundation)
- Naps (Nemours Foundation)
- Night Terrors (Nemours Foundation)
- Nightmares (Nemours Foundation)
- Sleepwalking (Nemours Foundation)
- Taking the Bite out of Bruxism (Nemours Foundation)
- What to Do if You Can't Sleep (Nemours Foundation)
- Common Sleep Problems (Nemours Foundation)
- How Much Sleep Do I Need? (Nemours Foundation)
- Pointers for Parents (National Sleep Foundation)
- Teen Sleep: Why Is Your Teen So Tired? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Sleep & Men (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)
- Sleep & Women (American Academy of Sleep Medicine)
- Good Night's Sleep (National Institute on Aging)
- Insomnia and Aging (Geriatric Mental Health Foundation)
- Sleep and Aging (National Institute on Aging)
If you would like more information, please contact a Lake Health Professional Librarian
I get asked all the time, "What can acupuncture treat?" Well, the list is truly endless. In very simple terms, acupuncture balances the body to try to maintain and restore homeostasis. Anytime your body is out of balance or in disharmony, acupuncture may be able restore harmony and improve your body's function, thereby, . In 1997, the National Institute of Health (NIH), endorsed acupuncture for some common conditions. The NIH stated "there is sufficient evidence of acupuncture's value to expand its use into conventional medicine." The World Health Organization recognizes acupuncture and Traditional Oriental Medicine's ability to treating these following conditions.
Seasonal Affective Disorder(SAD)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Low Back Pain
Menstrual irregularities/ PMS
Urinary Tract Infections
Because of the neural, hormonal and immune effects of acupuncture, the list of what acupuncture can treat is extensive. In the last fifty years, there are been many scientific studies which have validated and clarified how acupuncture works. The use of acupuncture has dated back over 5000 years. Since the 1970's, acupuncture has been utilized by millions in the United States. Acupuncture is an ancient therapy which has been proven to be successful for so many conditions.
Lake Health is committed to the health and safety of our employees, patients and community residents. Being a smoke-free campus demonstrates our commitment to a health lifestyle. Did you join us in supporting the Great American Smokeout on Thursday, November 18, 2010 and give up smoking and chewing tobacco for the day or support others in their efforts to quit tobacco?
Tobacco use is the most common preventable cause of death. About half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health and provides many benefits. Soon after you quit, your circulation begins to improve, and your blood pressure starts to return to normal. Your sense of smell and taste return and breathing starts to become easier. In the long term, giving up tobacco can help you live longer. Your risk of getting cancer decreases with each year you stay smoke-free.
Quitting is not easy. You may have short-term effects such as weight gain, irritability and anxiety. Some people try several times before succeeding. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from step-by-step manuals, counseling or medicines or products that help reduce nicotine addiction. Your health care provider can help you find the best way for you to quit. (NIH: National Cancer Institute
Lake Health provides smoking cessation classes “Up in Smoke” to employees and the community. Why not take the first step to better health and make an effort to QUIT SMOKING IN 2010. For more information call the Best of Health Line at 440-953-6000 or check out the American Cancer Society website at http://www.cancer.org.
Quitting Smoking: Why To Quit and How To Get Help
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/cancer (National Cancer Institute)
Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/cessation (National Cancer Institute)
Help for Smokers and Other Tobacco Users
http://www.ahrq.gov/consumer/tobacco/helpsmokers.htm(Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality)
http://www.healthfinder.gov/prevention/PrintTopic.aspx?topicID=24 (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion)
Quitting Tobacco: Challenges, Strategies, and Benefits
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/tobacco/quittingtips (National Cancer Institute)
FDA 101: Smoking Cessation Products
http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm198176.htm(Food and Drug Administration)
http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/addictions/tobacco/191.printerview.html(American Academy of Family Physicians)
Quit-Smoking Products: Boost Your Chance of Quitting for GoodQuit
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/quit-smoking-products/MY00781/METHOD=print(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Where to Get Help When You Decide to Quit SmokingWhere
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/help-quitting (National Cancer Institute)
Skills to Help You Cope with Stopping Tobacco Use
http://www.mayoclinic.org/stop-smoking/coping.html(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Kick the Smoking Habit
http://www.healthyroadsmedia.org/titles/engsmoking.htm(Healthy Roads Media)
Also available in Spanish
http://nihseniorhealth.gov/lungcancer/causesandriskfactors/video/lc1_na.html (National Institute on Aging)
http://nihseniorhealth.gov/lungcancer/causesandriskfactors/video/lc3_na.html (National Institute on Aging)
Stop Smoking Before Surgery
http://www.lifelinetomodernmedicine.com/ArticlePage.aspx?ID=8f6437cc-0b61-4d3b-b309-d9969bdacff6&LandingID=29d0791e-005b-40dd-be33-05b988b17619(American Society of Anesthesiologists)
Smoking and Sleep
http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/video/sleep07_epstein_smoking(Harvard Medical School)
Health Check Tools
Smoking - The Facts
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/smokingthefacts/htm/index.htm(Patient Education Institute)
I Quit: What to Do When You're Sick of Smoking, Chewing, or Dipping
http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/quit_smoking/how_to_quit/iquit/(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Smoking: Don't Let It Steer You Wrong
http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/addictions/tobacco/274.printerview.html(American Academy of Family Physicians)
Pregnant? Don't Smoke! Learn How and Why to Quit for Good
http://www.cdc.gov/Features/PregnantDontSmoke/(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Smoking: It's Never Too Late to Stop
http://www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation/Publications/smoking.htm (National Institute on Aging)
For most people who have struggled with weight, there is the persistent, nagging suspicion that permanent body change may be a fiction. When we look around, we see very few people who have lost weight and kept it off...yet every magazine cover proclaims the ease of bodily reconstruction. Just walk off the weight! Lose 33 pounds by Christmas! As author Gary Taubes once famously asked, "What if it's all been a big, fat lie?"
Way back in 1959, obesity expert Albert Stunkard published a seminal paper which showed the dismal failure rates of programs treating overweight people. Stunkard demonstrated that, in multiple clinical settings, very few people lost weight and practically no one maintained the loss. In a 1983 commentary on this work, Stunkard recalled, "This study grew out of an attempt to resolve a paradox--the contrast between my difficulties in treating obesity and the widespread assumption that such treatment was easy and effective." Any reflective professional who deals with obesity will tell you that they often feel like Sysyphus, rolling an endless boulder up the mountain only to see it tumble back to the sea. Dieters feel the same way.
If we have been lied to, if it is in fact impossible to get rid of excess weight in any permanent way, we may want to circumvent the frustration and simply accept ourselves. We may even want to rejoice in the size we've been dealt. This outlook is attracting a growing number of people and has come to be known as Size Acceptance. If you are unfamiliar with this viewpoint, you might want to take a look at websites like Big Fat Blog or the writings of Linda Bacon, PhD.
The growing size acceptance movement together with the very real failures of conventional weight loss treatment have given me quite a bit of food for thought. As always, I can only give my own opinions and I remain respectful of those who disagree.
Here are some of the questions raised by size acceptance as I see them:
1. Is long lasting weight loss unattainable?
2. Is overweight unavoidable for some?
3. Is overweight unhealthy and if so, do we bear any responsibility for keeping ourselves healthy? Can we be healthy and overweight?
4. What is causing us to be obese? Who are the potentially responsible parties?
For me, here are the answers:
1. Is long lasting weight loss attainable? Yes. Long lasting weight loss is possible. There may be periods of relapse or regain, but increasingly I see people who have been able to engineer permanent change. This is not to minimize the profound nature of this change. It is not for everyone. But I do think that we are getting better at figuring out how to do this and at creating connections between those who have. I am also hopeful that the FDA will finally approve medications that we can use during the early phases of weight maintenance. Drugs that blunt appetite would be very helpful are allowing Maintenance Juniors (Just Reduced) to get used to a new eating style. They might also bridge the period when hormones and brain chemistry are altered following the starvation-like period of dieting.
2. Is overweight unavoidable for some? Yes. Likely there are many people for whom weight gain is unavoidable in our current environment. These people may have more sensitive responses to modern foods or may have been so metabolically damaged by modern eating that weight loss is too great a task. However, I believe that there are fewer of these people than we might think.
3. Is overweight unhealthy? Unequivocally yes. There have been many critiques written that cast doubt on the veracity of reported health consequences of overweight and obesity. As a physician, however, I must say that the degree of ill health that comes directly from weight is utterly convincing and completely astounding. How can I be sure that these problems are coming from weight? I can be completely sure because I am able to watch them dissolve and disappear as weight is lost. I am able to watch them re-occur as weight is regained. In addition to the obvious big killers: high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, diabetes, high cholesterol and an increased risk of cancer, there are the things that make life miserable like gastric reflux, gout, arthritic pain, shortness of breath, sleep apnea, fatigue and depression.
Do we have a responsibility to choose healthy habits? That depends on your world-view. America has never been a society that has looked down on those who chose to race motorcycles, smoke, or drink. Those choices have always been the personal business of the individual. However, the choices of individuals become more profound when they are part of a sweeping health epidemic. There is no question that the societal costs of treating the panoply of obesity related disease are staggering. Perhaps we finally do have some social responsibility to attempt to curb these costs.
Can we be healthy and overweight or obese at the same time? We can certainly strive to be healthier at any level of body size, but certain realities remain: we cannot make up for the fact that our heart has to chronically power a body that is 30 to 100 pounds larger. We cannot make the loading on our back and joints disappear if we remain overweight. We also know that intra-abdominal fat is viewed as an invader by the body and causes a brisk inflammatory response which goes on internally. While we can try to be healthier, we cannot be sure that we do not remain chronically inflamed: a state which leads to diabetes and vascular disease.
4. What is causing us to be obese? This is the sticking point. While it is completely legitimate to say, “This is who I am. I choose to accept it", I remain troubled by one major thought. Suppose this is NOT who you are? Suppose you are only this way because you have been manipulated, brain-washed, culturally drowned, poisoned or otherwise hurt? You can still choose to accept and enjoy your size, but the landscape suddenly looks a lot different. I can't be sure that obesity has skyrocketed because of the way our culture has accepted and promoted food. I can't be sure that we don't all have a virus or haven't succumbed to an environmental toxin. It may be a combination of the two, but nevertheless, a healthy skepticism about the SAD and an unwillingness to participate in it, seems to be the pre-requisite for making complete bodily change. We see the same phenomenon in those who have gastric bypass surgery. The surgery initially causes withdrawal from the SAD. Eating modern foods causes the patient to feel sick. Once a year or two has passed, some patients become able to tolerate SAD foods again. Those who succumb regain weight. Patients who remain SAD-free also remain lean.
Having said all of this, I find that a big part of my job is convincing some patients that they should accept their size. Torturing oneself with failed weight loss attempts, hating oneself for perceived inadequacies is no way to live. Many of the people who come to my practice are charming, accomplished, lovely people who simply can't get past their weight and can't accept that losing weight is not in the cards. That unhappiness is a tragedy. Thus, it seems to me that there are two equally legitimate strategies for personal overweight. One is to fight the fat...but with the knowledge that the fight is infinitely more difficult than we've been led to believe. The other is to accept it and try to remain as healthy as possible at any given size.
The best advice I can give as a practitioner is this: Rather than wedding ourselves to absolute beliefs about size, perhaps we would do better to periodically re-evaluate our positions. We may want to attempt weight change now only to find that we accept ourselves at a larger size later. We may be happy eating the SAD today, but decide that we want to trade in for better health as time goes on. The one thing that we should never do is use our belief to hit someone else over the head. Obesity and it's cultural roots are way too complicated to allow them to divide us into angry camps. Like other ethically challenging decisions, the decision as to whether to accept size or continue to work against it remain deeply personal and should be respected.
Aches…pains…sadness…fear….insecurity…… "It's all in your head".
Have you heard this from your doctor, your spouse, a friend, or perhaps you have even said it to yourself? Well, in part, it is true. Our thoughts exist in our head and they are very powerful tools. What we say to ourselves can lift our spirits, relax us, or give us a sense of excitement and hope. They can also make us fearful, mistrusting, and physically ill. Almost every minute of the day you are engaging in conversation with yourself. It is through this conversation that you interpret interactions with others, assess how you feel and control your physical well being. Thoughts are very powerful but within our control. Therefore, the key to managing physical and emotional reactions is in our awareness and control of our thoughts.
Many of you have heard me say that any thought that begins with…Oh my Gosh or What if …is destined to take you to potentially some irrational thoughts and often erroneous conclusions. Our interpretation of situations is based on our past experiences, our current level of stress and is influenced by how we feel physically and emotionally. A few strategies to monitor and manage our thoughts include:
- Avoid "all or nothing" thinking: If you are tired, overwhelmed, or physically ill and then faced with a stressful situation, your ability to cope is impaired. You are more likely to engage in all or nothing thinking. This involves using language like "always," "ought to," "need to," "never," and "must." These words set up a standard that says that if a person does not live up to an expectation then the person is terrible or the circumstance in uncontrollable. In reality, it isn't the event or person that is bad but the standard that you set. The standard is irrational because people and situations are never all good or all bad, therefore you set yourself up to feel disappointed, angry, and stressed when your expectations are not met.
- Evaluate the evidence of your self-dialogue: Learn to distinguish your reaction from the stressful event. Many encounters that we have throughout the day have the potential to cause stress. However, it is our interpretation and our reaction that actually causes the stressful physical and emotional response. What is the evidence that you have for your thoughts and conclusions? Consider the feeling when you are stuck in traffic and late for work. Your body becomes tense, you may yell at other drivers, you may feel heart racing, experience a headache, drive more aggressively-----but did you get to work any faster? Probably not. Monitoring self-talk and reminding self that you have no control over the traffic. You have control over averting a headache or raising your blood pressure. Reminding self of your irrational thoughts and reactions will help you gain control over them.
- Confront your worst fears: Bring your worst fears into clear focus. When you carry your irrational thoughts to the final conclusion by asking yourself and so if that does happen then what, you may find that the worst thing that could happen may not be as terrible as you think. Or appears too irrational to be realistic. Or may be a terrible outcome but one that you will learn to cope with if need be. Simply worrying and anticipating the worst outcome only creates fear and avoidance. Confronting it helps us feel in control and ready to engage in active coping.
American Diabetes Month is a time to raise awareness of diabetes prevention and control. In the United States, 24 million people are living with diabetes and 57 million more are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With Type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.
Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes may include fatigue, thirst, weight loss, blurred vision and frequent urination. Some people have no symptoms. A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.
Over time, if it’s not controlled, type 2 diabetes can cause serious health problems like heart disease, stroke, and blindness. You may be at risk for type 2 diabetes if you:
- Are overweight
- Exercise less than 3 times a week
- Are over 45 years old
- Have high blood pressure or high cholesterol
- Are African American, Latino, American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian American or Pacific Islander
- Have a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes
The Lake Health Diabetes and Renal Care center offers many programs. For more information, please visit https://www.lakehealth.org/diabetes-and-renal-care-center
The Patient and Community Resource Center, located in the Carol DeJoy Lake Health Resource Center, is available for all Lake Health patients, family members and our community residents. It is located on the 1st floor, Suite 113 in the Physician Pavilion adjacent to TriPoint Medical Center.
To visit the Carol DeJoy Lake Health Resource Center please call to check on staff availability. Email and voicemail are available 24/7.
Carol DeJoy Lake Health Resource Center
Phone: 440-639-4387 or ext.42019
- American Diabetes Association complete guide to diabetes: the ultimate home reference from the diabetes experts.
- American Dietetic Association guide to eating right when you have diabetes / Maggie Powers.
- American Diabetes Association guide to insulin & type 2 diabetes / Marie McCarren.
- Diabetes & heart: healthy cookbook / American Heart Association, American Diabetes Association.
- Gestational diabetes: what to expect / American Diabetes Association.
- Life with diabetes: a series of teaching outlines by the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center / lead authors,
- The family guide to fighting fat: a parent's guide to handling obesity and eating issues / Texas Children's Hospital.
- The new family cookbook for people with diabetes / American Diabetes Association; the American Dietetic Association.
- What to expect when you have diabetes: 170 tips for living well with diabetes / by the American Diabetes Association.
- Basics about Diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- I Have Diabetes (National Diabetes Education Program)
- Introduction to Diabetes (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- JAMA Patient Page: Diabetes
- Multivitamins Don't Reduce Diabetes Risk (11/04/2010, Reuters Health)
- Haitian Americans Show Poorer Diabetes Control (11/03/2010, Reuters Health)
- Diabetes Tied to Colon Cancer in Men, Not Women (11/02/2010, Reuters Health)
- NIH Researchers Identify Genetic Elements Influencing the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes (11/02/2010, National Human Genome Research Institute)
- Number of Americans with Diabetes Projected to Double or Triple by 2050 (10/22/2010, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- More News on Diabetes
- Diabetes: Tests (American Association for Clinical Chemistry)
- Diagnosis of Diabetes (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- Glucose Tests (American Association for Clinical Chemistry)
- Microalbumin Test (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- MedlinePlus: Diabetes Medicines (National Library of Medicine)
- Treatments (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- Power to Prevent: Helping African Americans Prevent Type 2 Diabetes (National Diabetes Education Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion)
- Ten Ways African Americans Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes (National Diabetes Education Program) - PDF
- Ten Ways Hispanics / Latinos Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes (National Diabetes Education Program) - PDF
- Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes (National Diabetes Education Program)
- Alternative Therapy
- CAM and Diabetes: A Focus on Dietary Supplements (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
- Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies for Diabetes (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
- MedlinePlus: Diabetic Diet (National Library of Medicine)
If you would like more information, please contact a Lake Health Professional Librarian
Ever since Jonah was swallowed by the whale, the idea of being ingested remains a terrifying thought. In horror films, aliens gobble people whole. We fear being "swallowed" by the ocean, by storms and by quicksand. Perhaps we have nightmares about our planet being swallowed by a black hole.
We are frightened of being eaten, but we have little fear about what we, ourselves, choose to eat.
Unlike most posts on this site, this is not going to be a diatribe about sugars, starches or calories. Instead, this is a diatribe about safety and why we should be circumspect about the things we choose to swallow.
Aside from breathing, eating is the only act in which we take something from the outside world and make it a complete part of ourself. If you think of it, this is profound. The old saw "you are what you eat" is true in a very real way. The components of the things you ingest become the substance of your body. So too, their toxins, the unexpected hitch-hikers, that accompany foods, drinks and medicines.
As the wife of a gastroenterologist, I can tell you that there is an inordinate amount of food poisoning in our world. Whenever someone gets a GI illness, they say they have the "stomach flu". More likely, they've been poisoned. Think about that: poisoned! While there is the occasional epidemic of Norwalk virus or other gastroenteritis, most of our unexplained bouts of vomiting and diarrhea come from contaminated food. This knowledge has made me think twice about the restaurants I am willing to trust. While it's always a crap shoot, if the chefs are a bunch of 18 year olds in a franchise at a highway exit, you can be sure I'm not stopping.
There has been a lot written recently about contaminants that wind up in supplements and medicines. It has always astounded me that otherwise cautious people---people who buckle up when they drive, wear bike helmets, and floss their teeth---think nothing of taking potions they hear about on the internet or peculiar supplements that are not vetted by the FDA. Even vitamins branded with names of doctors, clinics and celebrities. Who is making these supplements and what in the world is in them? Are you really willing to put them directly into your Ferrari of a body?
This week, I saw a new patient who asked me whether she should stop taking her vitamins while dieting. When I asked her what she took, she produced a shopping bag full--literally. There must have been 15-20 different supplements in there, all from manufacturers I'd never heard of. Apart from the question of what these bottles actually contained, there was the larger question of whether healthy people should be taking vitamins at all. No less an authority than the vaunted Cleveland Clinic says no. And I agree. But then again, I’m particularly paranoid about my food sources. I do believe in fish oil, but I'd feel a lot better if I knew the Norwegian guy who caught the fish personally.
You can call me crazy, but it only takes so many salmonella and e.coli outbreaks to tell us that we need to look out for ourselves. No one else is going to, at least not until after the fact. Consider the latest example, fines levied against pharmaceutical giant Glaxo for shameful practices in the manufacture of major drugs.
The New York Times reports:
Altogether, GlaxoSmithKline sold 20 drugs with questionable safety that were made at a huge plant in Puerto Rico that for years was rife with contamination. Cheryl Eckard, the company’s quality manager, asserts in her whistle-blower suit that she warned Glaxo of the problems but the company fired her instead of addressing the issues. Among the drugs affected were Avandia, Bactroban, Coreg, Paxil and Tagamet.
The article goes on to specify:
The plant was GlaxoSmithKline’s premier manufacturing facility, producing $5.5 billion of product each year. But Ms. Eckard soon discovered that its quality control systems were a mess: its water system was contaminated; its air system allowed for cross contamination between products; its warehouse was so over-crowded that rented vans were used for storage; it could not ensure the sterility of intravenous drugs for cancer; and pills of differing strengths were sometimes mixed in the same bottles.
Although F.D.A. inspectors had spotted some problems, most were missed. And the company abandoned even the limited fixes it promised to conduct, the unsealed lawsuit says. Ms. Eckard complained repeatedly to senior managers; little was done. She recommended recalls of defective products; recalls were not authorized. In May 2003, she was terminated as a “redundancy.” She complained to top company executives; she was ignored even after warning that she would call the F.D.A.. So she called the F.D.A. and sued. The agency began a criminal investigation and used armed federal marshals in 2005 to seize nearly $2 billion worth of products, the largest such seizure in history. Unable to fix the plant, GlaxoSmithKline shuttered it in 2009.
Who is looking out for you? Only YOU.
Here's what I recommend:
1. Carefully consider your food sources and try to eat in places that you know and trust. Foods that stand out in the open, like salad bars, are risky unless you know they are frequently cleaned and the food kept cold and fresh.
2. Don't eat unknown substances and supplements simply because they have an ad in Shape, Women's Fitness or the National Enquirer.
3. Don't assume that medicines are safe. Take the fewest pills you can. (But DO take meds if you need them!)
Your body is precious. Vet everything that you decide to eat by giving it at least a few moments of consideration. If it's worthy of you and your health, then enjoy. If it's suspect, unknown, or of uncertain value, give it the heave-ho.
What is influenza (also called flu)?
The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.
Symptoms of flu
People who have the flu often feel some or all of these symptoms:
- fever* or feeling feverish/chills
- sore throat
- runny or stuffy nose
- muscle or body aches
- fatigue (very tired)
- Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults.
*It’s important to note that not everyone with flu will have a fever.
How flu spreads
Most experts believe that flu viruses spread mainly by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby. Less often, a person might also get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching their own mouth, eyes or nose.
Period of contagiousness
You may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick. Most healthy adults may be able to infect others beginning 1 day before symptoms develop and up to 5-7 days after becoming sick. Some people, especially children and people with weakened immune systems, might be able to infect others for an even longer time.
How serious is the flu?
Flu is unpredictable and how severe it is can vary widely from one season to the next depending on many things, including:
- what flu viruses are spreading,
- how much flu vaccine is available
- when vaccine is available
- how many people get vaccinated, and
- how well the flu vaccine is matched to flu viruses that are causing illness.
Certain people are at greater risk for serious complications if they get the flu. This includes older people, young children, pregnant women and people with certain health conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease).
Flu seasons are unpredictable and can be severe. Over a period of 30 years, between 1976 and 2006, estimates of flu-associated deaths range from a low of about 3,000 to a high of about 49,000 people.
During 2009-2010, a new and very different flu virus (called 2009 H1N1) spread worldwide causing the first flu pandemic in more than 40 years. It is estimated that the 2009 H1N1 pandemic resulted in more than 12,000 flu-related deaths in the U.S. In contrast to seasonal flu, nearly 90 percent of the deaths occurred among people younger than 65 years of age.
Complications of flu
Complications of flu can include bacterial pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, dehydration, and worsening of chronic medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, asthma, or diabetes.
Preventing seasonal flu: Get vaccinated
The single best way to prevent the flu is to get a flu vaccine each season. There are two types of flu vaccines:
- The "flu shot"–an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is given with a needle. The seasonal flu shot is approved for use in people 6 months of age and older, including healthy people, people with chronic medical conditions and pregnant women.
- The nasal–spray flu vaccine –a vaccine made with live, weakened flu viruses that do not cause the flu (sometimes called LAIV for "Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine"). LAIV is approved for use in healthy* people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant.
About two weeks after vaccination, antibodies develop that protect against influenza virus infection. Flu vaccines will not protect against flu-like illnesses caused by non-influenza viruses.
The seasonal flu vaccine protects against the three influenza viruses that research suggests will be most common. The 2010-2011 flu vaccine will protect against 2009 H1N1, and two other influenza viruses (an H3N2 virus and an influenza B virus).
When to get vaccinated against seasonal flu
Yearly flu vaccination should begin in September, or as soon as vaccine is available, and continue throughout the flu season which can last as late as May. This is because the timing and duration of flu seasons vary. While flu season can begin early as October, most of the time seasonal flu activity peaks in January or later.
Who should get vaccinated?
On February 24, 2010 vaccine experts voted that everyone 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine each year starting with the 2010-2011 influenza season. CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted for "universal" flu vaccination in the U.S. to expand protection against the flu to more people. While everyone should get a flu vaccine each flu season, it’s especially important that certain people get vaccinated either because they are at high risk of having serious flu-related complications or because they live with or care for people at high risk for developing flu-related complications.
Who is at high risk for developing flu-related complications?
- Children younger than 5, but especially children younger than 2 years old
- Adults 65 years of age and older
- Pregnant women
- Also, last flu season, American Indians and Alaskan Natives seemed to be at higher risk of flu complications
- People who have medical conditions including:
- Asthma (even if it’s controlled or mild)
- Neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions [including disorders of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, and muscle such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy (seizure disorders), stroke, intellectual disability (mental retardation), moderate to severe developmental delay, muscular dystrophy, or spinal cord injury]
- Chronic lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and cystic fibrosis)
- Heart disease (such as congenital heart disease, congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease)
- Blood disorders (such as sickle cell disease)
- Endocrine disorders (such as diabetes mellitus)
- Kidney disorders
- Liver disorders
- Metabolic disorders (such as inherited metabolic disorders and mitochondrial disorders)
- Weakened immune system due to disease or medication (such as people with HIV or AIDS, or cancer, or those on chronic steroids)
- People younger than 19 years of age who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy
- People who are morbidly obese (Body Mass Index [BMI] of 40 or greater)
Who else should get vaccinated?
Other people for whom vaccination is especially important are:
- People who live in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities
- People who live with or care for those at high risk for complications from flu, including:
- Health care workers
- Household contacts of persons at high risk for complications from the flu
- Household contacts and caregivers of children younger than 5 years of age with particular emphasis on vaccinating contacts of children younger than 6 months of age (children younger than 6 months are at highest risk of flu-related complications but are too young to get vaccinated)
Use of the nasal spray seasonal flu vaccine
Vaccination with the nasal-spray flu vaccine is an option for healthy* people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant. Even people who live with or care for those in a high risk group (including health care workers) can get the nasal-spray flu vaccine as long as they are healthy themselves and are not pregnant. The one exception is health care workers who care for people with severely weakened immune systems who require a protected hospital environment; these people should get the inactivated flu vaccine (flu shot).
Who should not be vaccinated against seasonal flu?
Some people should not be vaccinated without first consulting a physician. They include:
- People who have a severe allergy to chicken eggs.
- People who have had a severe reaction to an influenza vaccination in the past.
- People who developed Guillian-Barré syndrome (GBS) within 6 weeks of getting an influenza vaccine previously.
- Children younger than 6 months of age (influenza vaccine is not approved for use in this age group).
- People who have a moderate or severe illness with a fever should wait to get vaccinated until their symptoms lessen.
If you have questions about whether you should get a flu vaccine, consult your health care provider.
For more about preventing the flu, see the following:
- Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine
- Influenza Antiviral Drugs
- Good Health Habits for Prevention
- The Flu: A Guide for Parents [2pgs, 2 MB]
- Flu & You [2pgs, 71 KB]
* "Healthy" indicates persons who do not have an underlying medical condition that predisposes them to influenza complications.
Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
For More Information:
- Flu (Influenza)Flu (Influenza) http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/flu/understandingflu/pages/definitionsoverview.aspx (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)
- Flu.govFlu.gov http://www.flu.gov/(Dept. of Health and Human Services)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://espanol.pandemicflu.gov/pandemicflu/enes/24/_www_pandemicflu_gov
- InfluenzaInfluenza http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/influenza/htm/index.htm (Patient Education Institute)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/influenzaspanish/htm/index.htm
- Cold and Flu GuidelinesCold and Flu Guidelines http://www.lungusa.org/lung-disease/influenza/in-depth-resources/cold-and-flu-guidelines.html(American Lung Association)
- FluFlu http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ByAudience/ForWomen/ucm118571.htm (Food and Drug Administration)
- Get Set for Winter Illness SeasonGet Set for Winter Illness Season http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm092805.htm(Food and Drug Administration)
- JAMA Patient Page: InfluenzaJAMA Patient Page: Influenza http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/302/17/1926.pdf(American Medical Association) - PDF
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/data/302/17/1926/DC1/1
- Key Facts about Seasonal Influenza (Flu) & Flu VaccineKey Facts about Seasonal Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine http://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://www.cdc.gov/flu/espanol/keyfacts.htm
- Seasonal Influenza (Flu)Seasonal Influenza (Flu) http://www.cdc.gov/flu/(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- More News on FluFluhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/alphanews_f.html#flu
- Influenza SymptomsInfluenza Symptoms http://www.cdc.gov/flu/symptoms.htm(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Is It a Cold or the Flu?Is It a Cold or the Flu? http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/flu/documents/sick.pdf (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) - PDF
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/flu/documents/sick_spanish.pdf
- Decongestants: OTC Relief for CongestionDecongestants: OTC Relief for Congestion http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/otc-center/otc-medicines/859.printerview.html(American Academy of Family Physicians)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/otc-center/otc-medicines/859.printerview.html
- What Everyone Should Know and Do Snort. Sniffle. Sneeze. No Antibiotics Please!What Everyone Should Know and Do Snort. Sniffle. Sneeze. No Antibiotics Please! http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/know-and-do.html(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- 2010-2011 Influenza Season Vaccine Questions and Answers2010-2011 Influenza Season Vaccine Questions and Answers http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Post-MarketActivities/LotReleases/ucm220649.htm(Food and Drug Administration)
- Faces of InfluenzaFaces of Influenza http://www.facesofinfluenza.org/(American Lung Association)
- Inactivated Influenza Vaccine 2010-2011Inactivated Influenza Vaccine 2010-2011 http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-flu.pdf(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://www.immunize.org/vis/spflu06.pdf
- Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family?Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body/flu_vaccine.html(Nemours Foundation)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://kidshealth.org/parent/en_espanol/infecciones/flu_vaccine_esp.html
- Live, Intranasal Influenza Vaccine 2010-2011Live, Intranasal Influenza Vaccine 2010-2011 http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-flulive.pdf(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://www.immunize.org/vis/spliveflu06.pdf
- Preventing Seasonal Flu with VaccinationPreventing Seasonal Flu with Vaccination http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/index.htm(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Preventing the FluPreventing the Flu http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/vaccines/477.printerview.html(American Academy of Family Physicians)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://familydoctor.org/online/famdoces/home/healthy/vaccines/477.printerview.html
- Straight Facts about H1N1 and the 2010-11 Flu SeasonStraight Facts about H1N1 and the 2010-11 Flu Season http://www.lungusa.org/about-us/our-impact/top-stories/flu-news-straight-facts-2010-11.html(American Lung Association)
- Colds and Flu and CAM: At a GlanceColds and Flu and CAM: At a Glance http://nccam.nih.gov/health/flu/ataglance.htm (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
- EchinaceaEchinacea http://nccam.nih.gov/health/echinacea/ (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
- European ElderEuropean Elder http://nccam.nih.gov/health/euroelder/ (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
- Asthma: Limit Asthma Attacks Caused by Colds or FluAsthma: Limit Asthma Attacks Caused by Colds or Flu http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/asthma/AS00024/METHOD=print(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Cancer, the Flu, and YouCancer, the Flu, and You http://cdc.gov/cancer/flu/(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Flu Shots: Especially Important If You Have Heart DiseaseFlu Shots: Especially Important If You Have Heart Disease http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/flu-shots/HB00086/METHOD=print(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune DeficiencyFlu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency http://www.aaaai.org/patients/elements/2009/10/1009_elements.pdf(American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology) - PDF
- MRSA and Seasonal FluMRSA and Seasonal Flu http://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/riskfactors/mrsa-and-seasonal-flu.html(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Smoking and InfluenzaSmoking and Influenza http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/smoking.htm(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Flu CheckupFlu Checkup http://www.freemd.com/Flu-Checkup/visit-virtual-doctor.htm(DSHI Systems)
- InfluenzaInfluenza http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/influenza/htm/index.htm(Patient Education Institute)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/tutorials/influenzaspanish/htm/index.htm
- Flu Clinic LocatorFlu Clinic Locator http://www.lungusa.org/lung-disease/influenza/flu-clinic-locator/(American Lung Association)
- Avoiding the FluAvoiding the Flu http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/fall09/articles/fall09pg5.html
- Understanding FluUnderstanding Flu http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/fall06/articles/fall06pg18-21.html
- What You Can Do to Stop the FluWhat You Can Do to Stop the Flu http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/fall09/articles/fall09pg7.html
- Action Steps for Parents if School is Dismissed or Children are Sick and Must Stay HomeAction Steps for Parents if School is Dismissed or Children are Sick and Must Stay Home http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/schools/toolkit/parentfactsheet.htm(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Action Steps for Parents of Children at High Risk for Flu ComplicationsAction Steps for Parents of Children at High Risk for Flu Complications http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/schools/toolkit/parentfactsheet3.htm(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Action Steps for Parents to Protect Your Child and Family from the Flu this School YearAction Steps for Parents to Protect Your Child and Family from the Flu this School Year http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/schools/toolkit/parentfactsheet2.htm(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Children, the Flu, and the Flu VaccineChildren, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/children.htm(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- FluFlu http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/sick/flu.html(Nemours Foundation)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://kidshealth.org/kid/en_espanol/comunes/flu_esp.html
- Is It a Cold or the Flu?Is It a Cold or the Flu? http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/sick/flu_vs_cold.html(Nemours Foundation)
- Who Needs a Flu Shot?Who Needs a Flu Shot? http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/sick/flu_shot.html(Nemours Foundation)
- Flu FactsFlu Facts http://kidshealth.org/teen/infections/bacterial_viral/flu.html(Nemours Foundation)
- Pregnant Women and the Flu: Five Things You Need to KnowPregnant Women and the Flu: Five Things You Need to Know http://www.flu.gov/individualfamily/parents/pregnant5tips.html(Dept. of Health and Human Services)
- Seasonal Flu Shot in Pregnancy: Is It Safe?Seasonal Flu Shot in Pregnancy: Is It Safe? http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/influenza/AN00651/METHOD=print(Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Flu InformationFlu Information http://www.medicare.gov/navigation/manage-your-health/preventive-services/flu-shots.aspx(Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services)
- Flu—Get the ShotFlu—Get the Shot http://www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation/Publications/flu.htm (National Institute on Aging)
- Also available in SpanishSpanish http://www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation/Publications/Spanish/flu-sp.htm
- Protect Yourself from Seasonal FluProtect Yourself from Seasonal Flu http://www.healthfinder.gov/prevention/PrintTopic.aspx?topicID=18 (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion)
The primary NIH organization for research on Flu is the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - http://www.niaid.nih.gov/
Flu - Multiple Languages - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/flu.html